Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine), is a substance found in animals, plants, fungi and bacteria. In animals it is a hormone that anticipates the daily onset of darkness. It is synthesized in animal cells directly from the essential amino acid tryptophan, but in other organisms through the Shikimic acid pathway.
In animals, melatonin is involved in the entrainment (synchronization) of the circadian rhythms of physiological functions including sleep timing, blood pressure regulation, seasonal reproduction and many others. Many of melatonin's biological effects in animals are produced through activation of melatonin receptors, while others are due to its role as a pervasive and powerful antioxidant, with a particular role in the protection of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA.
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